|Publications of year 1997|
|Articles in journals|
|Abstract:||It is well attested that we perceive speech through the filter of our native language: a classic example is that of Japanese listeners who cannot discriminate between the American /l/ and /r/ and identify both as their own /r/ phoneme (Goto. H., 1971. Neuropsychologia 9, 317-323.). Studies in the laboratory have shown, however, that perception of non-native speech sounds can be learned through training (Lively, S.E., Pisoni, D.B., Yamada, R.A., Tohkura, Y.I., Yamada, T., 1994. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96 (4), 2076-2087). This is consistent with neurophysiological evidence showing considerable experience-dependent plasticity in the brain at the first levels of sensory processing (Edeline, J.-M., Weinberger, N.M., 1993. Behavioral Neuroscience 107, 82-103; Merzenich, M.M., Sameshima, K., 1993. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 3, 187-196; Weinberger, N.M., 1993. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 3, 577-579; Kraus, N., McGee, T., Carrel, T.D., King, C., Tremblay, K., Nicol, T., 1995. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 7 (1), 25-32). Outside of the laboratory, however, the situation seems to differ: we here report is study involving Spanish-Catalan bilingual subjects who have had the best opportunities to learn a new contrast but did not do it. Our study demonstrates a striking lack of behavioral plasticity: early and extensive exposure to a second language is not sufficient to attain the ultimate phonological competence of native speakers|
|Abstract:||EXPE is a DOS program for the design and running of experiments that involve the presentation of audio or visual stimuli and the collection of on-line or off-line behavioral responses. Its flexibility makes it also a very useful tool for the rapid design of protocols for testing neuropsychological patients. EXPE provides a powerful scripting language which allows the user to specify all the components of an experiment in a human readable file. Subjects? responses are saved in a user-specified format, also in readable ASCII files. A remarkable feature of EXPE is that the user can easily add new commands to the language: all the instructions are calls to functions written in independent Borland Pascal units. Thus, users can link their own pascal procedures to EXPE to meet any special need. This makes it possible, for example, to adapt EXPE to new hardware, such as new sound or video boards|
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