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| Publications of year 2021|
Cassandra Potier Watkins.
Can technology facilitate reading acquisition, developing applications for phonics learning and dyslexia screening / La technologie peut-elle faciliter l'apprentissage de la lecture ? Développer des applications pour l'acquisition de la phonétique et le dépistage de la dyslexie?.
Université de Paris,
This thesis focuses on the application, to French students, of advances in the understanding of how children learn to read, what methods best train literacy and how we can better assess reading deficits-- so that these advances can fuel a virtuous circle between cognitive science and educational interventions. In the case of literacy, there is a global consensus that early explicit phonics instruction is the best means to learning how to read. In this thesis, we propose a tablet-based game to support phonics learning. We also address several unanswered questions of teaching methodology. For example, during what period of time should the teaching of the phonetic method be introduced? Can children learn to read using phonics software before formal literacy? We present the results from our randomized control study with French first graders (N=975). Data collected from pre- and post- tests shows that children only benefited from the phonics game when it was used early in the school year. In a second intervention, we improved the design of the application and research methodology, and then tested the game with French kindergarteners (N=1092). This time students improved in factors that support literacy, irrelevant of the period that the games were used. However, in a follow-up test, benefits disappeared once formal reading education began. In the process of seeking to develop a tablet-based approach to literacy, we also describe a program used by the game engine that automatically creates a phonics progression based on the most frequent and consistent grapheme-phoneme correspondences for any alphabetic language. Historically, some of the greatest insights into the processes involved in reading have come from the examination of the deficits caused by brain lesions. Based on the hypothesis that reading is a complex cognitive activity, and that a deficit in any part of the process could lead to dyslexia, we developed a screener that looks at the types of errors made by readers to assess for selective deficits. After normalizing the screener with French 6th and 7th graders, we examine the different types of errors made by students previously diagnosed with dyslexia by their school. We present the first French cases of two different types of selective deficits: letter position dyslexia and attention dyslexia. The body of this work was developed with the goal of practical application. To this end, the tablet-based game and phonics builder code were developed using open-source software and licenses. Our screener for dyslexia is also open for use in collaboration with our lab. In the general discussion, we discuss ideas for immediate improvements and future studies that could be done using these tools, to the benefit of improved literacy programs for all students.
Manuela A Basso,
Kathryn A Guerriero,
Kenji W Koyano,
David A Leopold,
Using non-invasive neuroimaging to enhance the care, well-being and experimental outcomes of laboratory non-human primates (monkeys).
and Stanislas Dehaene.
How does inattention affect written and spoken language processing?.
and Amir Amedi.
Core knowledge of geometry can develop independently of visual experience.
P Christiaan Klink,
Vincent P Ferrera,
Andrew S Fox,
Anna S Mitchell,
Combining Brain Perturbation and Neuroimaging in Non-human Primates.
Daria La Rocca,
Virginie van Wassenhove,
and Patrice Abry.
Revisiting functional connectivity for infraslow scale-free brain dynamics using complex wavelets.
Frontiers in Physiology,
and Stanislas Dehaene.
Mechanisms for handling nested dependencies in neural-network language models and humans.
and Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz.
Explicit access to phonetic representations in 3-month-old infants.
Kep Kee Loh,
Rogier B Mars,
A collaborative resource platform for non-human primate neuroimaging.
Timo van Kerkoerle,
and Stanislas Dehaene.
Sensitivity to geometric shape regularity in humans and baboons: A putative signature of human singularity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
and Daniel Pressnitzer.
Bifurcation in brain dynamics reveals a signature of conscious processing independent of report.
Camilo Miguel Signorelli and Daniel Meling.
Towards new concepts for a biological neuroscience of consciousness.
Camilo Miguel Signorelli,
and Gustavo Deco.
Hierarchical disruption in the cortex of anesthetized monkeys as a new signature of consciousness loss.
Anesthesia induces a reconfiguration of the repertoire of functional brain states leading to a high function-structure similarity. However, it is unclear how these functional changes lead to loss of consciousness. Here we suggest that the mechanism of conscious access is related to a general dynamical rearrangement of the intrinsic hierarchical organization of the cortex. To measure cortical hierarchy, we applied the Intrinsic Ignition analysis to resting-state fMRI data acquired in awake and anesthetized macaques. Our results reveal the existence of spatial and temporal hierarchical differences of neural activity within the macaque cortex, with a strong modulation by the depth of anesthesia and the employed anesthetic agent. Higher values of Intrinsic Ignition correspond to rich and flexible brain dynamics whereas lower values correspond to poor and rigid, structurally driven brain dynamics. Moreover, spatial and temporal hierarchical dimensions are disrupted in a different manner, involving different hierarchical brain networks. All together suggest that disruption of brain hierarchy is a new signature of consciousness loss.
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Last modified: Mon May 10 15:08:32 2021
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